În învăţarea limbii engleze, o motivare puternică poate fi participarea la activităţi de învăţare ce presupun factori externi care nu au nimic a face cu natura activităţii în sine. Astfel de surse de interes pot fi distracţia şi jocul de rol.
În ceea ce priveşte prima metodă, crearea sau receptarea unor anumite idei sau forme grafice poate fi plăcută sau amuzantă. Activităţi precum audierea de poveşti sau cântece, vizionarea de filme, piese de teatru sau emisiuni de televiziune, sunt extrem de atractive.
Astfel, putem folosi ilustrate sau poveşti cu ilustrate ce se pot găsi într-o carte, pe un hand-out, pe un poster sau chiar desenate pe tablă. În mod tradiţional, au fost folosite ca punct de plecare pentru exerciţii de scriere, dar s-au dovedit, de asemenea, folositoare în abordarea unor chestiuni de gramatică sau ca material pentru activităţi de vorbire şi audiere. Majoritatea poveştilor cu ilustrate constituie bune exemple de folosire a timpurilor trecut simplu şi trecut continuu.
Înregistrări cu cântece sau chiar un recital la chitară oferit în clasă de un elev sunt adesea folosite ca activităţi „de umplutură” menite a schimba dispoziţia sau ritmul lecţiei. Însă, cântecele pot fi, de asemenea, integrate în mod util în fluxul lecţiei. De altfel, multe manuale conţin cântece care vizează anumite noţiuni de limbă sau vocabular, fiind, în prealabila selectate pe acest criteriu (de exemplu, Tom’s Dinner abundă în exemple de prezent continuu).
O altă metodă distractivă de învăţare a limbii engleze este vizionarea de emisiuni sau filme. Asemenea exerciţii de audiţie ajută elevul la o mai bună înţelegere a limbii engleze dar pot, de asemenea, fi folosite pentru a preda noţiuni de gramatică. Noile tendinţe includ asemenea înregistrări în pachetul manualului şi conţin o mare varietate de activităţi. De asemenea, profesorul se poate folosi de înregistrări proprii: ştiri televizate, reclame, videoclipuri, etc.
Exerciţii bazate pe compararea sau combinarea unor idei incompatibile în condiţii normale pot produce rezultate amuzante. Se pare că procedee de brainstorming direct şi deschis adesea atrag după sine contribuţii amuzante, antrenante.
Uneori, principalul obiectiv al participării elevilor la o sarcină este tocmai crearea acestei atmosfere de amuzament şi nu obţinerea performanţei.
În ceea ce priveşte a doua metodă, jocul de rol, adesea elevilor le place să joace rolul altcuiva sau chiar rolul propriei persoane într-o situaţie imaginară. Iar această temporară desprindere de realitate, este, nu numai o metodă de motivare a elevilor să participe la activitate, ci chiar un eficient mod de a lărgi sfera vocabularului disponibil.
În cadrul jocului de rol, elevii primesc pe un cartonaş informaţiile despre rolul pe care trebuie să îl interpreteze( hoţ, cântăreţ de muzică rock, detectiv, copil de 9 ani, etc.). În loc de rolul propriu – zis ce trebuie interpretat, cartonaşele pot conţine indicaţii despre acesta(cumpără un bilet de tren spre Londra). După ce îşi pregătesc rolul timp de câteva minute, vin în faţa clasei şi interpretează mici scene, folosindu-se de propriile idei precum şi de informaţiile conţinute de cartonaşe.
Pentru a fi cât mai eficiente, cartonaşele trebuie astfel concepute încât să creeze divergenţe de opinii între elevi care pot duce la dezbateri constructive fără ca elevii să aibă sentimentul că se ceartă. Aceste cartonaşe pot oferi elevilor oportunitatea de a exersa diferite aspecte legate de gramatică, vocabular etc.
Există o diferenţă între „jocul de rol”, în care fiecare student adoptă o personalitate pentru un anumit scop, şi „simularea”, în care un grup de elevi se poartă şi conversează într-un mod adecvat unei situaţii imaginare, reprezentând, astfel, un grup social. Totuşi, cele două metode pot fi combinate cu succes.
Fiecare din cele două metode prezentate poate crea cadrul pentru exerciţii de gramatică, atât controlate, cât şi relativ libere. Multe activităţi de gramatică sau vocabular pot fi mult mai interesante şi mai eficiente dacă se adaugă această dimensiune a simulării unei situaţii extraşcolare.
Quick drama ideas
One Word Dialogue
1. Write the dialogue below on the board
2. Ask the students to act it out in pairs.
3. Then tell them to create their own, one-word dialogues.
4. You will need to help the students with their intonation.
Student A: Happy?
Student B: Happy!
Student A: Really?
Student B: Sure!
Student A: Angry?
Student B: No!
1. Mime to the whole group what you did the night before.
2. The students should shout out what you are miming.
3. Then put the students into pairs and ask them to mime what they did the night before to each other.
4. As one student is miming the other student should say in words what the mime is.
1. Give out an occupation to each student and put the students into pairs.
2. Then write on the board 10 am yesterday.
3. The students should then mingle and explain what they were doing at that time according to their jobs.
4. They can mime what they were doing and the other students should explain what they were doing in words.
5. Keep changing the times i.e. say „now it’s 12 pm.”
6. The students should move around the room and mime something that they were doing at that time.
Teacher Doctor Nurse Shop assistant Window cleaner
Clown Tennis player Model Baseball player Footballer
Politician Hair stylist Actor Sailor
Reported speech role play
1. After you have taught reported speech, put the students into groups of three.
2. Explain that one person in the three is a rich actress/actor, one is his/her niece/nephew and the last person is the butler.
3. The actor/actress is hearing impaired and dying.
4. She is going to decide what to do with her money and house after her death.
5. Set up the class so that the actors/actresses are on one side of the room, the nieces/nephews on the other and the butlers in the middle.
6. The butlers need to give messages from the nieces/nephews to the actor/actress.
7. The aim is for the butler and the nephew/niece to be nice so that the actor/actress will give them her money.
8. As they are doing this the butler will use reported speech e.g. She said that you are lazy and never visited her. He said he was busy and didn’t have time. He said that he was helping animals.
You are the niece/nephew of a very rich, famous hearing impaired actress.
You know that she hasn’t got long to live. So, for the moment you are trying to become her favorite relative in order to obtain her millions after she is dead. You know that she loves animals and children. You also know that her dog is her closest friend. What do you think will make her give you some money?
You are the butler to a rich, famous hearing impaired actress.
Actually she hasn’t got long to live and so you are being very nice to her at the moment, you think you have a good chance of being left her millions in her will. You have always helped her and you have looked after her cats and dogs with care. You think you should at least get the house which you have cleaned for nearly 40 years! You don’t like her niece/nephew who has suddenly made an appearance.
You always have to act as a go between for the niece/nephew and aunt because the aunt can never hear her relative.
You are a rich, famous, hearing impaired actress.
You know that you haven’t got long for this world but you don’t mind because you have had a good life. You also know that your niece/nephew wants something but you’re not sure what.
You have already written your will but you are prepared to change it.
Your will: $ 2 million to be left to the animal rescue league (you love cats)
Your house will go to your dog. It has been a faithful companion animal and you want it to have a home when you’re gone.
Your jewelry will be sold at auction in order to raise money for the children’s hospital near your house. You haven’t decided about the rest, a sum total of $150,000. Your butler has always been good to you. Your niece/nephew is also sweet. You are waiting to hear what they have to say. You feel that if they can show you how good they really are you will give the money to either one of them.
As a follow up lesson:
Ask the students what type of words „hearing impaired” and „companion animal” are i.e. politically correct. For homework ask the students to think/find of more politically correct words. The students can compare their lists when they get back into class.
Witness to a crime
1. Explain to the students that they have witnessed a crime.
2. Tell them to read the roles that you give them carefully.
3. Give each student a role.
4. Allow them time to read their roles and then tell them to stand up and mingle with the entire group.
5. As they mingle they should explain their roles to one another.
6. At the end of the activity put the students into pairs and ask them to tell each other all of the information that they found out from the other students.
7. As a follow up activity ask the students to write a report of the crime based on the information that they found out.
You were standing near the drug store; you were talking to a friend who had just come back from vacation. You were listening to her tell you all about her time in Mexico. Suddenly, you noticed three people running from the store.
You were talking to a friend about your vacation outside the drug store, suddenly, your friend shouted, „Look!” You noticed three people running from the store; one was carrying a large bag.
You were waiting in the drug store for a prescription, you were angry because you had been waiting for a very long time. Suddenly, a man pushed in front of you and started shouting. It was 3.30pm; you knew because you had been waiting for your prescription since 3pm!
You were behind the counter in the drug store – serving customers. You were hungry and angry because the customers were being so impatient and you had missed lunch. Suddenly, a man ran up to the counter and told you to handover the money.
You were helping your friend behind the counter in the drug store, you actually work in the bakery next door but it was your break and so you decided to visit your friend – now you wish that you hadn’t! Suddenly, a man shouted, „Give me the money!” You tried to hide but he saw you! He had blue eyes and was wearing a green shirt and a black sweater with a hat. Your friend gave him $2,000.
You heard a man shouting in the drug store; you were looking for headache tablets. Suddenly, you heard a man shout, „Give me the money!” It was 3.30pm; you were going home to watch Oprah Winfrey, she was doing a special program on violent children.
You were standing near the counter in the drug store, you saw a man wearing a casual pair of black pants and a sloppy sweater. You were surprised because it was the middle of the summer. Suddenly, he shouted, „Give me the money!”
You were holding the door of the drug store open for a woman with a baby. She had a lot of things to carry and so you tried to help her when suddenly two men pushed you; you almost fell! As they ran away, you saw that they were wearing black sweaters.
You were walking into the drug store with your baby. You wanted to buy some diapers. You noticed a man open the door for you, but as you walked through the door two men came out and pushed you out of the way.
You were standing by the mailbox near the drug store trying to mail some letters, when you saw three men running from the store. One had a bag and two were wearing black sweaters, the last man was following them, he was wearing a red shirt.
You were working at the front of the drug store putting cans on the shelves. You were wearing a red shirt and a black pair of pants. Suddenly, you saw two men running from the store with a bag. You ran after them to try to stop them.
You are a police officer. You were standing on the street corner. You suddenly saw three men running toward you; you knew that they were in trouble. You chased them but you only managed to catch the one wearing a red shirt and black pants. When you told him to stop he resisted.
You were watching TV at home; Oprah Winfrey was on – your favorite. It was about 4.15pm when the phone rang, it was the police, they said that John had been arrested for stealing money from the drug store. You couldn’t believe it- not your son and not when your favorite program was on!
You own the drug store. The police called you at 5pm to say that they had arrested John. You have no idea what happened but you always thought that he was a problem.